Planet Name: Earth/Terra

As the Latin word for their homeworld was "Terra", Humans were sometimes referred to as "Terrans". Occasionally the term Terran was used to distinguish Humans living on Earth from those resident on colonies on other planets and moons. Some people used the adjective "Terran" to refer to subjects or institutions associated with Humanity (Terran cuisine, Terran literature, Terran art, etc.). The most diverse of the species in the Federation.

1.1) Background

Home Planet: Earth (Sol III or Terra)

Appearance: Humanoid; varied color of eyes, skin, and hair. Many differences between racial groups.

Physiology: Humanoid

Society and Culture: Varied

Government: Democratic

2.1) First Contact Date: Not Applicable
2.2) Joined the Federation: Founded Federation

3.1) Appearance:

Average Height: 4'10" - 6'0"
Average Weight: 120 lbs - 220 lbs

3.2) Physiology:

Bilaterally symmetrical bipedal primates, Humans were a warm-blooded humanoid species. They had two hands and two feet, each of which had five digits. The Human hand featured an opposable thumb and their fingers had multiple points of articulation. The average Human life span had gradually increased during their history. At one point, it was only 35 years. During the 22nd century it was about 100 years. In the 24th century, Humans were known to live as long as 137 years.

Humans evolved from the Australopithecus. Several related species of humanoids, including the Neanderthals, co-existed on Earth some thirty-five thousand years prior to the 22nd century. Evolutionary pressures led to the extinction of these other species. In the 22nd century, Humanity's closest living relative was the chimpanzee.

They had two sexes, as was common to many humanoid species. The female of the species was fertile once a month after she reached puberty until the onset of a biochemical stage known as menopause. Human gestation was significantly longer than the Bajoran five months. The make-up of Human DNA structure was significant, as, with some modifications, it allowed them to crossbreed successfully with a wide range of other races across the galaxy, including Vulcans, Betazoids and Klingons.

On average, Humans were not as physically strong as some species such as Klingons and Vulcans. They were, however, resilient in other ways. They were more adaptable to incarceration than Klingons. They could survive with one lung or kidney, despite having two of both of these organs initially. Humans could also go days without water and weeks without food due to their bodies' ability to conserve water and live off stored fat. Their bodies' efficient temperature regulation allowed them to resist and survive cold temperatures that would adversely affect other species such as Cardassians and Klingons, or high temperatures that would be uncomfortable for an Andorian. They also possessed more acute hearing than Cardassians.

Humans were prone to strong, occasionally overwhelming emotions, such as love, hatred, embarrassment and elation. Such feelings extended beyond sentient species. Many Humans anthropomorphized the lower life-forms they kept as pets. Even fictional characters could elicit Human compassion.

Humans had iron-based hemoglobin in their blood. Each's individual's blood could be one of eight blood types, which included AB-positive, O-negative and B-negative.

4.1) Society and Culture:

Humans were easily the most outworldly, idealistic and expansionistic race in the United Federation of Planets, and possessed those qualities in a greater degree than many of the alien races they would encounter. Humans had no true specialty or extraordinary qualities and were average in both a technological and physical sense.

The Devore inspector Kashyk remarked that Human culture had many contradictions, violence and beauty, science and faith, all somehow mingled harmoniously, similar to the counterpoint of a musical composition.

Because Humans were the Federation species most interested in space exploration, they made up a large majority of Starfleet. The fact that Starfleet was originally a pre-Federation Earth organization also contributed to the Human dominance of Starfleet. Humans also made up the majority of colonists on Federation colonies.

Human adaptability and their strong tradition of innovation and cooperation brought them to the forefront of the current Federation interstellar situation. It was for this very reason, however, that Human society was constantly changing and evolving. This was seen not only on the isolated colonies, where the past traditions brought by culturally and geographically homogeneous blocks of colonists compete with new cultural pragmatism demanded of frontier life, but also in the staid and settled core worlds as well. Fashion, speech and especially political views were constantly changing.

For species that were steeped in tradition and genealogical reverence as the basis of their societies, the Human fascination with the novel experience and their unending desire to innovate and explore, to discover for the sake of discovery, were all difficult concepts to grasp.

Jazz music persisted into the 24th century and became a contribution to galactic culture, as did opera music. Humans played music collaboratively in a format known as "classical music."

Competitive sports from Human cultures also became part of Federation culture in various ways. Sports played in the 24th century included soccer, fencing, and wrestling. Other Human sports included water polo, baseball, and hockey.

Humans expressed themselves through various art forms. One such art form was known as dance.

Human cuisine had a broad spectrum, and was shared widely with other cultures. Humans were omnivorous, unlike vegetarian Vulcan culture. A small sampling of Human dishes enjoyed by other species included pecan pie and chocolate. Human foods were often connected to a place, a language, or a family and were a part of a richer cultural experience, such as jambalaya and oden.

Human mating rituals sometimes involved a cultural ceremony known as a wedding to indicate a lasting commitment, as in other cultures such as Vulcan and Klingon.

Human culture evolved to eliminate war, poverty and disease by the year 2113.

4.2) Love and Marriage:

Usually dictated by cultural and racial groups. See religions.

4.3) Spirituality/Religion:

Human religion refers to any system of associated beliefs held by a Human about one or more supernatural deities, often involving rituals and codes of ethics. While many such belief structures developed naturally, others were influenced by extra terrestrial influences over time. Despite the formation of numerous religions on Earth during recorded history, no single religion predominated the entire Human culture.

In the 23rd century, some Federation starships included a nondenominational chapel where weddings and funerals could be held. (TOS: "Balance of Terror", "The Tholian Web")

Both mono- and polytheistic beliefs and traditions existed in the 23rd century. Lara, a 23rd century Human, used the expression: "In the name of the seven Gods!" (TAS: "The Jihad") Kirk however has stated that, "mankind has no need for Gods. We find the one quite adequate." (TOS: "Who Mourns for Adonais?")

Human religions

  • Buddhism
  • Christianity
  • Greek gods
  • Hinduism
  • Judaism
  • Kukulkan
  • Native American religions
  • Polytheism
  • To name a few

5.1) Native Home System: Sol

Capital Planet: Earth (Sol III or Terra)

5.2) Capital City: Paris, European Alliance (Federation Capital)

5.3) Geopolitical Regions:

There are more, but these regions had larger impacts on the history of Earth.

African Confederation: The African Confederation was a political entity on the continent of Africa on the planet Earth. Geordi La Forge was born here on February 16th, 2335. (TNG: "Cause and Effect")

Details of this Confederation are unknown, as is how it relates to the United States of Africa mentioned in the semi-official biographies of Uhura.
Uhura speaks of having lived in the African Confederation in the Star Trek newspaper comic strip.

The novel Losing the Peace by William Leisner establishes the African Confederation to include the present-day nation of Somalia, including the capital city of Mogadishu (now a thriving, peaceful metropolis), the home city of the family of Geordi La Forge.

Australia: Australia was the smallest continental landmass on planet Earth and home to a country of the same name. People from Australia were known as Australians.

When Hoshi Sato was twelve, she had a female pen pal from Brisbane, Australia. At the time, she loved getting letters from her, noting that "it was like this little window into distant places with strange-sounding names." (ENT: "Dear Doctor")

Starfleet officers are known to have survival training in the outback of Australia, where they learn to survive drinking recycled sweat and eating snake meat. Trip Tucker and Jonathan Archer once spent two weeks in Australia for their survival training during the 2140s. (ENT: "Desert Crossing") A.G. Robinson also underwent survival training in Australia. (ENT: "First Flight")

In the mid-22nd century, the Vulcans had a consulate in the Australian city of Canberra. (ENT: "Terra Prime")

20th century-era maps of Australia and the eastern hemisphere were stored in the USS Enterprise library computer in 2254. These maps were among the materials viewed by the Talosians when they scanned the Enterprise computer. (TOS: "The Cage")

Sarah Sisko was killed in a hovercraft accident in Australia while working as a holophotographer. (DS9: "Image in the Sand")

When Lily Sloane claimed for a way out of the USS Enterprise-E Jean-Luc Picard told her it would be difficult. He opened a hatch to space and showed Lily Earth, pointing at Australia, New Guinea, and the Solomons. (Star Trek: First Contact)

In an illusion created by the telepathic pitcher plant in 2375, where the USS Voyager crew had discovered a wormhole to Earth, Lieutenant Tom Paris was offered a position as a pilot at a new test flight center in Australia.

Belgium: Belgium was a country on Earth, part of the European Alliance. Cities included Brussels, Antwerp and Waterloo. This region, like Armenia, was identified by Captain James T. Kirk in 2267 as a vulnerable waypoint situated on the invasion routes of many invading armies in Earth's history. The flag of Belgium was three vertical bands of black, yellow, and red. (TOS: "Errand of Mercy"; ENT: "First Flight")

Belgium was occupied both during World War I and World War II due to its strategic position between France and Germany.

In the alternate timeline 20th century created by Vosk and the Na'kuhl, Vladimir Lenin was assasinated, and Adolf Hitler could focus on the West. He took France, then Belgium and the Netherlands quickly fell. (ENT: "Storm Front, Part II")
In the late 20th century, Belgium was a founding member of the European Space Agency. (ENT: "First Flight")

In 2325, Devinoni Ral was born here. (TNG: "The Price")

In 2372, Antwerp was targeted by the Dominion. A changeling infiltrator detonated an explosive device there. (DS9: "Homefront")

According to the Star Trek Fact Files, Belgium was a member of the International Space Agency in the early 21st century.

Brazil: Brazil was a country on the South American continent on Earth.
Brazil was known for its diverse wildlife found in the Amazon rainforest and river. (ENT: "Fight or Flight") The city of Rio de Janeiro was one of Brazil's popular destinations. (DS9: "What You Leave Behind")

In 2151, Hoshi Sato taught as a university professor in Brazil, before she took a commission aboard the Earth starship Enterprise NX-01 as communications officer in order to have the chance to experience new languages from outer space. (ENT: "Broken Bow", "Shockwave", "Zero Hour", "Observer Effect") She returned to her position there following the decommissioning of the Enterprise in 2161. (ENT: "These Are the Voyages…") In the mirror universe, Hoshi Sato also taught in Brazil. (ENT: "In a Mirror, Darkly")

Starfleet dedicated the USS Sao Paulo "for the people of Brazil." (DS9: "The Dogs of War")

In 2375, Ezri Dax stated that Jadzia was fond of Rio (de Janeiro) as a place to live when Miles O'Brien thought of moving back to Earth. (DS9: "What You Leave Behind")

Canada: Canada was a North American country on Earth. The Arctic Circle ran through the country. Canada's national flag was red supporting a central white band with a red 11-pointed maple leaf. (TOS: "The Cage", ENT: "First Flight")
Political maps in the USS Enterprise library computer that identified Canada's location on Earth were accessed by the Talosians in 2254. (TOS: "The Cage", original & remastered)

During the 20th century, triticale, the root grain of quadrotriticale, was developed in Canada. (TOS: "The Trouble with Tribbles")
In the late 20th century, the Canadian Space Agency was founded in cooperation with NASA for the training of astronauts in the latter's Space shuttle program. One of the first graduates of this program was Marc Garneau of STS-41G. (ENT: "First Flight")

In 2154, Jonathan Archer suggested Canada and Norway as possible locations for Hoshi Sato to take respite following the Xindi incident. (ENT: "Zero Hour")

Sam Lavelle's grandfather was originally from Canada. In an attempt at small talk, Lavelle pointed out to the Alaska-born William T. Riker that both Canada and Alaska "get a lot of snow," which Riker concedes. (TNG: "Lower Decks")

Michael Eddington's family was also from Canada. A once family heirloom of Eddington's was a 22nd century one dollar coin which he dubbed his "lucky loonie". (DS9: "Blaze of Glory")

In an alternate timeline, Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King was used in a 1944 Nazi propaganda newsreel as an example of a "financial profiteer." (ENT: "Storm Front, Part II")

China: China was a country that existed on Earth. It was also a term for a large geographical area in Asia. China bordered against several other Earth nations, among them Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and Korea. The people and culture specific to China was referred to as Chinese.

The Great Wall of China was constructed beginning in the 3rd century BC and fully connected by the first Qin emperor in order to prevent an invasion by nomads to the north. (VOY: "11:59")

In 1932, seven women fell victim to the Redjac entity in Shanghai, the major port in this country. (TOS: "Wolf in the Fold")

While visiting 1986 Earth, James T. Kirk described to Gillian Taylor why he was so interested in George and Gracie. When Kirk asked Taylor if she wanted the details, she told him, "I wouldn't miss this for all the tea in China." (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home)

During San Francisco's Bell Riots, in 2024, Biddle Coleridge commented on the television coverage of the hostage situation, stating that "great, we're on every channel. I bet they're watching this in China." (DS9: "Past Tense, Part II")

In 2268, the situation on Neural reminded Captain Kirk of Earth's 20th century Brush Wars, and the Kohms of Omega IV reminded him of Asian communists. (TOS: "A Private Little War", "The Omega Glory")

In 2293, Spock stated that the Vulcans have a proverb: "only Nixon could go to China." (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)

In 2364, Captain Picard presented planetary ruler Lutan with a Sung dynasty horse statue from 13th century China, on the occasion of the USS Enterprise-D's visit to Ligon II. (TNG: "Code of Honor")

In 2365, Picard, commenting on the hitherto indeterminate location of Iconia, reminded Wesley Crusher that China, too, had been thought a myth until Marco Polo reported his own journey there. (TNG: "Contagion")

Colombia: Colombia was a nation in northern South America on the planet Earth. A map of the world, showing Colombia, was present in the library computer of the USS Enterprise in 2254. (TOS: "The Cage")

Sometime after the Khitomer Accords, Harcourt Fenton Mudd began a Raktajino business in Colombia, distributing the Klingon coffee throughout the Federation. It was a popular beverage on Deep Space 9. (The Art of Star Trek; DS9: "Trials and Tribble-ations")

Denmark: Denmark was a country on the continent of Europe on Earth. The Danes were one of the peoples who comprised the seafarers known as Vikings. Denmark's flag was red with a white Nordic cross. (ENT: "First Flight")
Hamlet was a 7th century Danish king, whose murder was avenged by his like-named son. This story became the famous tragedy by Shakespeare. (TOS: "The Conscience of the King")

In the 16th century the Danish king supported the astronomical research of his subject Tycho Brahe. Captain Archer told an anecdote about Brahe as a diversion when captive on the Vulcan monastery planet. (ENT: "The Andorian Incident")

In the late 20th century, Denmark was a founding member of the European Space Agency. (ENT: "First Flight")

Commander Chakotay recalled that the epic poem Beowulf was set in 6th century Denmark. (VOY: "Heroes and Demons")

According to the Star Trek Fact Files, Denmark was a member of the International Space Agency in the early 21st century.

Copenhagen Base might be in Denmark, or might simply be named for its capital.

Eastern Coalition: The Eastern Coalition, or "ECON", was a faction in Earth's Third World War which, during the conflict, launched attacks on the United States.
In 2063, approximately ten years after the end of the war, Lily Sloane assumed that the ECON was resuming their attacks when a Borg sphere from the future opened fire upon Zefram Cochrane's launch facility in central Montana. Later, while aboard the Enterprise-E, Sloane demanded to know which faction Captain Jean-Luc Picard belonged to, although he assured her he wasn't a member of the Eastern Coalition. (Star Trek: First Contact)

A coalition of nations in the Far East and/or Middle East would seem to be suggested by the name of this combatant. It was later explained by Brannon Braga, in the film's audio commentary, that the ECON was at one time simply "China," but that it was changed in favor of political correctness.

European Alliance: In the 24th century, the European Alliance was a political entity on the European continent on Earth, incorporating the city of Brussels, among others. (TNG: "The Price")

The relation between the European Alliance and the European Hegemony, which existed during the 22nd century, remains unclear.

France France was a country on Earth, located on the Western European continent. (TOS: "The Cage") It was comprised of a metropolitan territory with Paris as its capital city (also capital of the Federation). It extended from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. France's flag was three vertical bands of blue, white, and red. (TNG: "The Last Outpost"; ENT: "First Flight")

India: India was a country located on the continent of Asia. The people and culture specific to India were referred to as Indians. The city of Bombay was located here. (DS9: "His Way")

By the 24th century, the Federation's Star Station India had been named in honor of this nation-state. (TNG: "Unnatural Selection")

Ireland: Ireland was an island off the northwestern coast of the European continent on Earth. Its major city was called Dublin.
Ireland was also the name of a country on this island. The island was divided for some time, with the north-east being part of the nation-state known as "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", with the remainder forming "The Republic of Ireland". In 2024, Ireland was reunited as a result of violence used as a political instrument. This event became known as the Irish Unification of 2024. (TNG: "The High Ground") Ireland's flag was three vertical bands of green, white, and orange. (ENT: "First Flight")

In the late 20th century, Ireland was a founding member of the European Space Agency. (ENT: "First Flight")

In 2151 the students of the Worley Elementary School in the Irish town of Kenmare sent Captain Jonathan Archer and his crew aboard Enterprise letters with questions about day to day life and operations on the ship. (ENT: "Breaking the Ice")

Miles O'Brien was born in Ireland in 2328. His family lived in Dublin when O'Brien served aboard Deep Space 9. (DS9: "Homefront") O'Brien claimed to be a descendant of the Irish king Brian Boru. (DS9: "Bar Association")

In 2373, Enrique Muñiz told O'Brien that Ireland did not have mountains, it had hills. (DS9: "The Ship")

Kathryn Janeway's dog Mollie was an Irish Setter, a breed of dog native to Ireland. (VOY: "Caretaker", "Shattered")

In 2376, Kathryn Janeway and other members of the USS Voyager crew enjoyed visiting Fair Haven (Cuan Soineanta in Irish), a holodeck creation of a 19th century Irish village. Tom Paris created the simulation. Janeway stated that she had interest in Irish culture. Neelix was considering several Irish dishes for the occasion, such as blood pudding, creamed cabbage and mutton. (VOY: "Fair Haven")

Italy: Italy was a country situated on a peninsula in the Mediterranean region of southern Europe on Earth, home of the Italian people. Italy's national flag was three vertical bands of green, white, and red. (TNG: "The Last Outpost", ENT: "First Flight")

Italy's largest city, Rome was the birthplace and dominant capital city of the Roman Empire in early Earth history. (TOS: "Bread and Circuses")
During the Renaissance, Italy was home to many of Earth's greatest thinkers and artists, including Galileo Galilei and Leonardo da Vinci.

Since the 19th century, Italy was a nation-state whose territory encompassed the peninsula. In the 1920s, the fascism ideology was developed in response to the economic and social difficulties. (DS9: "Far Beyond the Stars")

In the late 20th century, Italy joined the European Space Agency. (ENT: "First Flight")

In 2143, while orbiting Earth in the NX-Alpha, waiting for a glitch in the propulsion system to be cleared up at Starfleet Mission Control, A.G. Robinson noted that he saw Italy pass, several times. (ENT: "First Flight")

Geordi La Forge and Leah Brahms shared a passion for Italian food. Doctor Brahms was well known for her fungilli. (TNG: "Booby Trap")

During the 2370s, Captain Kathryn Janeway often worked in holodeck programs set in Italy, usually working with a representation of Leonardo da Vinci. (VOY: "Concerning Flight")

Japan:Japan was a group of islands off the eastern coast of the Asian continent, and a country on Earth. The capital of Japan was Tokyo. It was also the home of the Japanese people.

The islands of Japan had no land borders with any other nation, but were located across a narrow channel from the peninsula of Korea. (TOS: "The Cage")

Kazakhstan: Kazakhstan was a nation-state on Earth in the 21st century. Originally a socialist republic of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan became an independent nation in the 1990s. (TOS: "The Cage")
Maps of the Earth, including Kazakhstan, were present on the library computer of the USS Enterprise in 2254. (TOS: "The Cage")

Sometime towards the end of the 24th century, the USSR reformed and Kazakstan was apparently reincorporated into that nation. Kazakhstan at that time was the site of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which launched the SS Tsiolkovsky. (TNG: "The Naked Now")

Malaysia: Malaysia was a region on the southeast Asian continent on Earth.
In 2151, Lieutenant Malcolm Reed mentioned Kota Bharu, a coastal city in the northeast of the Malaysian peninsula where he was planning to meet his parents for a holiday. (ENT: "Broken Bow") Both of his parents resided in Kota Bharu. (ENT: "Silent Enemy")

In 2377, Malaysia obviously was a quite popular site for vacation as Commander Peter Harkins' cousin owned a beach house there. Harkins offered Lieutenant Reginald Barclay to lend it to him, but Barclay declined in favor of visiting Commander Deanna Troi during his vacation. (VOY: "Inside Man")

Russia: Russia was a country on Earth, which had spanned a large area of Europe and Asia. Along with the United States of America, it bordered directly against the International Date Line.
In 1917, the ruler of the country, the tsar, was overthrown and replaced by a communist government under Vladimir Lenin. Russia was a communist state until the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the 1990s. (VOY: "Future's End, Part II")

Having traveled back in time to 1947, Quark threatened to deal with the Russians if the United States refused to buy Ferengi technology from him. (DS9: "Little Green Men")

In the late 20th century, Russia founded the Russian Space Agency. This agency was notable for the first spacecraft, named Sputnik 1, launched into space which ignited the space race in 1957 between this country and the United States of America. Russia first cooperated with France in training French astronauts for missions on Soyuz and Mir. By the end of the 20th century, Russia and America were working together on missions to the International Space Station and on the space shuttles. (ENT: "Carbon Creek", "First Flight")

Pavel Chekov was born in Russia in 2245. Irina Galliulin, with whom Chekov was romantically involved, was also of Russian descent. In early 2375, Worf and Miles O'Brien talked about Worf's childhood in Russia. (TOS: "Who Mourns for Adonais?", "The Way to Eden"; DS9: "Image in the Sand")

In an alternate timeline, Vladimir Lenin was murdered in 1916. As a result, the Communist revolution never took place. The Nazi invasion of the country in World War II was more successful than in the original timeline, succeeding in reaching and overrunning Moscow. Following the Nazi invasion of America and rapid advancement of forces deep into American territory, many felt that the Germans were advancing too far too quickly, which lead to many setbacks in other German campaigns, including the Russians' attempts to retake Moscow. (ENT: "Storm Front")

United Earth: See Government

United States of America: The United States of America (United States, US, USA, or America) was a representative republic on the North American continent of Earth. Founded in the 18th century, the United States played a significant role in the history of Earth prior to the world's unification. The people and culture of the United States were known as American.

This country was identified on a political map of the Northern Hemisphere. This map was accessed from the USS Enterprise library computer by the Talosians in TOS: "The Cage".

According to Doctor Paul Stubbs, baseball, centuries ago, "was the beloved national pastime of the Americas." (TNG: "Evolution")
When the Michael Sullivan character of the Fair Haven program was beamed to the bridge of the USS Voyager, he thought he might have been taken to America. (VOY: "Spirit Folk")

America also referred to the combined landmasses of North America and South America (collectively, the Americas). This usage was more common amongst residents of the Americas who were not from the United States. In context, the reference to America in "Spirit Folk" would have meant the United States.

Venezuela: Venezuela was a country located on the South American continent on Earth.

In 2153, Venezuela was one of the regions affected in the attack by the test probe of the Xindi superweapon, which "cut a swath 4,000 kilometers long from Florida to Venezuela." The combined death toll was seven million people. (ENT: "The Expanse")

One of the most recognizable features in Venezuela is Angel Falls, the tallest waterfalls on Earth. Deanna Troi and William T. Riker visited Angel Falls in the past, and considered going there again following the Borg invasion in 2367. When Deanna told Beverly Crusher about their plans, she added that "Venezuela's beautiful." (TNG: "Family")

5.4) Government:

United Earth is the name of the planetary state created through the unification of Earth in the 22nd century following First Contact in 2063. United Earth continued to exist as a political subdivision of the United Federation of Planets when its government helped found that interstellar state in 2161. (Star Trek: First Contact; Star Trek: Enterprise)


By the 2150s, the United Earth government was coterminous with all major settlements made by humanity. This included all territory on Earth itself after all previous human governments united into one organization. United Earth controlled all of the Sol system, but in the 2150s, they had begun to spread to other nearby star systems. Humanity's spread beyond the Sol system, however, had been largely hindered by their stronger Vulcan allies for the past half century, as they did not feel that Humans were strong enough to face the many threats beyond their home star system.

Planetary bodies that had major Human settlements or military installations on them in the 2150s included:

In the Sol system:

Luna - Lunar colonies
Mars - Martian colonies

Several bases and mining installations in the asteroid belt "Jupiter Station" is apparently a military drydock/repair facility in orbit around the gas giant Jupiter.

Titan is used for hazardous environment training by Starfleet, though it is unclear if there are any permanent bases or installations on the moon of Saturn, or if away teams are simply dropped off for training.

In other solar systems:

Alpha Centauri - Proxima colony
Deneva - Deneva colony
Terra Nova - Terra Nova colony (contact lost in 2081, reestablished in 2151)
Vega - Vega colony

In ENT: "Twilight", in an alternate timeline in which Jonathan Archer lost his long-term memory, Earth was destroyed by the Xindi superweapon in 2154. When describing the Xindi's drive to exterminate humanity, a future T'Pol explains to Archer that the Xindi did not stop with the destruction of Earth (and thus, Luna) but went on to destroy every major human colony which existed in 2154, which she then lists as Mars, Alpha Centauri, and "Vega colony". It is uncertain from T'Pol's comments if these four planets were absolutely the only worlds colonized by humans, or if there may have been smaller colonies/outposts besides them. As for Deneva, TOS: "Operation — Annihilate!" stated that the planet was colonized by Humans by the 2150s. Furthermore, in ENT: "Horizon" it is stated that Earth Cargo Service trading ships were making runs to the colony in 2153.

In the first half of the 22nd century, the most significant Human presence in space beyond the Sol system itself was in the form of "Boomers", independent Human traders that formed a merchant marine using crude, generationally-owned starships that took years to travel between destinations. While nominally under the control of the Earth Cargo Authority, by their very nature, the Boomers were frontiersmen without any real oversight from Earth and generally handled their own affairs. In a sense, these small (approximately two dozen crewmen on the common Y-class freighter) and mobile ship-borne communities could be seen as "colonies" of a sort. During the second half of the 22nd century, as faster warp drives became more commercially available, travel time between destinations was cut down from years to months or weeks, and response by official United Earth Starfleet ships was for the first time made a practical reality, the independent frontier lifestyle of the Boomers gradually came to an end.


United Earth was the planetary state represented in the Coalition of Planets and later the United Federation of Planets. Government officials included Ministers.

Given the existence of the "minister" title, it is likely that the United Earth is a parliamentary government, possibly led by a prime minister.

Even after United Earth was formed, many nation-states and confederations retained their individual identities. This included the African Confederation, Canada, the European Alliance, Soviet Union and the United States of America. United Earth had many agencies. This included the early form of Starfleet (prior to 2161), Military Assault Command Operations (MACO), the United Earth Space Probe Agency, and the United Earth Diplomatic Corps, which was responsible, among other things, for running the United Earth Embassy on Vulcan during the 22nd century.

Governmental History

The name "United Earth" was used as early as 2067 for the United Earth Space Probe Agency.

By 2079, all "United Earth nonsense" was abolished in the post-atomic horror, at least in some areas of the planet.

The term United Earth was used in relation to a New United Nations declaration of 2036.

The activities of the European Hegemony, which existed in the 2120s, would lead to the formation of United Earth.

According to the The official Star Trek web site, the year 2113 may be time that the United Earth came into being, however, this fact has never made it into the canon. The date is cited to Star Trek: First Contact by some sources, but except for Deanna Troi speaking of "poverty, disease, war" being gone in 50 years there is no line in the movie suggesting a unification.

In 2150, the last of Earth's nations joined United Earth, making it truly global.

It is a common misbelief that Australia was the last state to join the United Earth Government in 2150, but Australia holding out was only used by Beverly Crusher as a hypothetical example when discussing the eligibility of the fractured planet Kesprytt with Jean-Luc Picard in TNG: "Attached"

It is, however, possible that the United Earth government was founded prior to 2150 and that this was the year that the last remaining independent nations chose to join. This is supported by various episodes of Star Trek: Enterprise, such as "First Flight", which established that the United Earth Starfleet existed in the 2130s and 2140s.

Minister Nathan Samuels represented United Earth at talks for the Coalition of Planets in 2155.

It is consistent with the term "federation" (as in "United Federation of Planets") to presume that the United Earth government at the time of Star Trek: Enterprise remained in place following the founding of the United Federation of Planets. Further evidence in this regard includes the 23rd century existence of a United Earth Space Probe Agency in TOS Season 1 and other agencies noted above under the jurisdiction of a Terran global government within the UFP.


Minister Nathan Samuels (2155; presided over the talks regarding the Coalition of Planets)

Councilman Jonathan Archer (2175-2183; represented United Earth to the

Federation Council; previously ambassador to the Andorian Empire; later Federation President)

Archer's ambassadorship is from a 2268 biographical screen seen in "In a Mirror, Darkly, Part II".


In the novel Articles of the Federation, it is revealed that United Earth came into existence in 2130 with the signing of a document called the Traité d'Unification at the Place de la Concorde in Paris, France; the Place de la Concorde later becomes the site of the Palais de la Concorde, the Federation's capitol building. The novel The Good That Men Do followed the notion that the last nation to become part of United Earth was Australia.

The short story "Eleven Hours Out" in the anthology Tales of the Dominion War indicates that United Earth is a parliamentary system, as an unnamed Prime Minister of United Earth is described as touring the devastated city of San Francisco after the Breen attack of 2375, along with the President of the United States and Federation President (established in a subsequent novel, A Time to Kill, as Min Zife of Bolarus). The novel Starfleet: Year One features a character named Lydia Littlejohn, who served as President of United Earth during the Earth-Romulan War. If the apocryphal stories are accepted as being in continuity with one another, this may be an indication that United Earth utilizes both presidential and prime ministerial offices, akin to the systems of the present-day State of Israel or Italian Republic. (In such systems, the President is usually the head of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government.)

The Star Trek: Enterprise novel Last Full Measure reveals that United Earth was involved in a number of very low-level conflicts with factions on alien planets (not full governments) and a rebellion on Mars in the years prior to the Xindi attack of 2153; MACO forces played a decisive role in those conflicts. United Earth's military is also revealed to have inherited the martial funeral ceremony of flag folding.

According to the unseen It's Federation Day! article created for the Picard family album in Star Trek Generations, Thomas Vanderbilt was the United Earth ambassador to the Federation Founding Ceremony.

6.1) History:

Human history is the history of the Human species from the planet Earth. Earth history has been extensively studied by Humans and non-Humans alike. Those who study history are known as "historians". One famous historian, John Gill, taught history in the 23rd century by lecturing on the causes and motivations of historical events, rather than simply reciting dates and events. (TOS: "Patterns of Force")


According to Q, approximately 3.5 billion years ago, "give or take an eon or two", a group of amino acids combined to form the first proteins, in the region of Earth that eventually became known as France. This first life on the planet developed into, among other things, the Human species. (TNG: "All Good Things…")

According to actual science, life already gained a foothold on Earth 4.1 billion years ago. However, this wasn't theorized until after the shooting of "All Good Things…".
Evidence was discovered in 2369 that suggests that many of the galaxy's humanoid races were descended from a single humanoid race, the originators of the form, who had seeded many worlds with DNA sequences. Humans displayed evidence of these DNA sequences. (TNG: "The Chase")

Approximately 290 million years ago, the semi-aquatic amphibian species Eryops lived on the Earth. Eryops was probably the last link between the branches of life that evolved along separate paths into dinosaurs and mammals. The mammalian line resulted in Humans. (VOY: "Distant Origin")

From roughly 200,000 to 28,000 years ago, two species of Humans co-existed on the planet, modern Humans and Neanderthals. However the Neanderthals went extinct long before recorded Human history began. (ENT: "Dear Doctor")

Ancient History

The Greek civilization arose approximately 2700 BC. Much of Earth's culture and philosophy began with the Greeks. To Captain James T. Kirk in the 23rd century, the Greek civilization was seen as the beginnings of a "Golden Age". (TOS: "Who Mourns for Adonais?")

Another ancient civilization, the Egyptians, constructed large pyramids as part of their accomplishments. Their Great Pyramid of Giza was the largest of the pyramids built in Egypt and was finished around 2600 BC. Its construction was observed by time-traveling anthropologists beginning in 2769. (ENT: "Cold Front")

Some battles that took place in ancient Human history were remembered into the 24th century. One such battle was a small band of Spartans led by King Leonidas, who defended a mountain pass against the vast Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC. The Spartans put up a "heroic struggle" (according to Julian Bashir), until they were wiped out. (DS9: "What You Leave Behind")

The Roman Empire – arising in the first century BC and lasting in one form or another until the 15th century – was the first major global power in Human history. The Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar (63 BC – 14 AD) was viewed by many, including Khan, as having achieved great things for the Empire during his reign. (TOS: "Space Seed") The Roman Empire was seen by Jean-Luc Picard to have begun its fall as a civilization in the 5th century when the Visigoths attacked the capital city of Rome during the reign of the Emperor Honorious. (TNG: "The Best of Both Worlds")

Following on the heels of Rome was a popular religion, Christianity, with a basic philosophy of, as Spock summarized it, "total love and total brotherhood". It arose in the ancient world beginning in the 1st century and followed the teachings of Jesus Christ. The religion considered Christ to be the son of God. (TOS: "Bread and Circuses")

Pre-warp history

A member of Species 8472 said of Humans in 2375, "At first glance they're so primitive. Genetic impurities, no telepathy, violent. And yet they've created so many beautiful ways to convey their ideas: literature, art, music." (VOY: "In the Flesh") Unfortunately, Human history before the discovery of the warp drive is, in many ways, not defined by literature, art, and music but by military conflicts, plague, and inhumanity.

The trend begins with a series of related military campaigns – fought for causes both religious and political – that took place during the 11th century through the 13th century. These were known as the Crusades. These wars gave Human history "character" according to Q. (DS9: "Q-Less")

Half of Europe was killed by the bubonic plague circa 1334. Flint saw it that summer from Constantinople: "… It marched through the streets, the sewers. It left the city by ox cart, by sea, to kill half of Europe. The rats, rustling and squealing in the night as they, too, died." (TOS: "Requiem for Methuselah")

Beginning in 1478, the Spanish Inquisition was founded in Spain to suppress heresies against the Christian religion. The Inquisition was regarded by Humans as a particularly brutal institution into at least the 24th century, and was regarded by Q as another historical event that provided character to Humanity and kept it from being boring. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home; DS9: "Q-Less")

By 1485, Earth had recovered from plague and war to achieve a technological level equivalent to a "B" rating on the industrial scale used by 23rd century Starfleet. (TOS: "Spock's Brain")

Another inquisition in the name of Christianity took place during the 17th century. The scientist Galileo Galilei publicly supported the idea that the Earth was not the center of the universe. He was tried and convicted of heresy in 1633 by an inquisition as a result, and many of his books were burned. (DS9: "In the Hands of the Prophets")

The 17th century also saw the start of many uprisings and revolutions against oppressive governments and empires. The Pueblo Revolt in 1680 was one. As described by Deanna Troi and Anthwara in 2370:

Troi: "[S]everal Indian tribes rose up against their Spanish overlords and drove them out of what is now called New Mexico."
Anthwara: "Ten years later, the Spanish returned to reconquer the area. They were … brutal … I would use the word savage. They killed our people by the hundreds … maimed thousands more."

According to Anthwara, one of the Spaniards was an ancestor of Picard's named Javier Maribona-Picard. (TNG: "Journey's End")

Another took place in the late 18th century, when George Washington helped win a war for his colonies' independence from Great Britain. This was generally known as the American Revolution and resulted in the establishment of the United States of America. In 2366 some, such as Beverly Crusher, considered Washington a military general; others, such as Kyril Finn, considered him a terrorist. (TNG: "The High Ground")

Commerce arose in the United States following the revolution, and throughout the 18th century and 19th century, ocean-going "Yankee Traders" sailed the oceans in search of mercantile opportunity. (TNG: "The Last Outpost")

In 1794, army general Napoléon Bonaparte rose to power, installing himself as absolute ruler of France in 1799, declared himself Emperor of France, and subsequently dominated Europe. The British Royal Navy, led by Admiral Horatio Nelson, defeated the combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805. Napoleon was ultimately defeated at Waterloo in 1815 due to the combined efforts of the British General Wellington, and the Prussian General Blucher. (TNG: "Hide and Q", "The Best of Both Worlds"; VOY: "The Thaw")

Human civilization experienced major wars that involved nearly every continent on Earth during the 20th and 21st centuries. The first two such wars – the first and second World Wars – saw six million and eleven million Humans die, respectively, from the effects of despotism alone. The third resulted in 37 million such deaths, and a total of 600 million Human deaths. (TOS: "Bread and Circuses"; Star Trek: First Contact; VOY: "In the Flesh")

In "Bread and Circuses", Spock gave casualty figures for each of World Wars I, II, and III. His figures are substantially off for total casualties that records show for the first and second world wars, even when all civilians are taken out of the equation. Only by assuming he was discussing deaths from despotism alone (reasonable in the context of his statement) do the numbers appear to match both data known in 1967 and later Trek statements on WWIII deaths.

The Second World War was a conflict, in part, between the forces of fascism – epitomized by Germany's Adolf Hitler and his Nazi political party – and those who opposed such a form of government. (TOS: "The City on the Edge of Forever") Initially assuming an official position of neutrality, the United States fully entered the conflict after a Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor. (TNG: "The Enemy") Hitler and his allies were defeated, but left controversy in their wake. In the 23rd century, some, such as Spock, saw the Nazis as sadistic; some, such as Kirk saw them as "brutal, perverted" and that they "had to be destroyed at a terrible cost". Still others, such as John Gill, saw them governing over the "most efficient state… Earth ever knew", and believed that some of the Nazi approaches could prove beneficial to a society. Spock agreed with Gill, at least as to efficiency: "That tiny country – beaten, bankrupt, defeated, rose in a few years to stand only one step away from global domination." (TOS: "Patterns of Force"; VOY: "The Killing Game", "The Killing Game, Part II"; ENT: "Storm Front", "Storm Front, Part II")

It is possible that Kirk may have been referencing the Korean War (1950-1953) and the Vietnam War (1957-1975), which both involved the United States and the Soviet Union.

The 20th century also saw the rise of nuclear weaponry and the beginnings of space exploration. In 1947, the three Ferengi Quark, his brother Rom, and nephew Nog were accidentally transported back in time from the 24th century to Roswell, New Mexico, and were mistaken for Martians. After returning to their own time by using beta radiation from a nuclear explosion, the incident was passed off by the government as a weather balloon. (DS9: "Little Green Men") 1968, the year in which a malfunctioning orbital nuclear weapon nearly detonated, was viewed by 23rd century Humans as one of the most critical years on record. Then-current Earth crises "would fill a tape bank", according to Spock. Assassinations, government coups, wars in Asia, the Communist/Capitalist conflicts, and orbiting hydrogen bombs were among the greatest problems facing Humanity at that time.

The 20th century also saw the start of genetic modifications to the Human genome and the creation of Humans (popularly known as Augments) made stronger, faster, and smarter by the hand of scientists. In 1993, a group of Augments seized power simultaneously in over forty nations and sparked the Eugenics Wars. The wars were particularly devastating, and during them civilization was on the verge of collapse in some parts of the world. (TOS: "Space Seed"; Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan) The terrible experiences that Humanity had with genetic manipulation resulted in long lasting prohibitions against intentional "improvement" of the Human genome well into the 24th century. (DS9: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume")

The United States suffered economic setbacks in the early 2000s. They were addressed circa 2020 by establishing Sanctuary Districts in major US cities. These walled districts were originally created to help America's massive homeless and jobless population. Instead, the districts became little more than prisons for the destitute and the mentally ill. In September of 2024, mounting tensions in the Sanctuary Districts culminated in the Bell Riots. Political fallout from the riots resulted in the abolition of the districts and the United States finally began to face the serious social problems it had struggled with for over a century. (DS9: "Past Tense, Part I", "Past Tense, Part II")

During the early 2000s, the international scene was deteriorating as well. The United Nations had been reorganized as the New United Nations. (TNG: "Encounter at Farpoint") A number of nations joined together in a union known as the Eastern Coalition. Hostilities between the Eastern Coalition and forces including the United States broke out in 2026 as World War III. The conflict soon escalated into full-blown nuclear holocaust, engulfing much of the globe and again nearly returning Human civilization to a dark age. 600 million people died across the planet as a result. The subsequent collapse of the global economy, political systems, and the drastic environmental effects of the war devastated those nations which had escaped direct nuclear attack. (Star Trek: First Contact; VOY: "In the Flesh"; ENT: "In A Mirror Darkly" production art)

With most of the major governments collapsed, law and order soon degraded into a "guilty-until-proven-innocent", lawyer-free show trial system which lasted until 2079 in some parts of the world. (Star Trek: First Contact; TNG: "Encounter at Farpoint", "All Good Things…")

The period from the 19th to the late 21st centuries also saw dramatic environmental degredation due to human activities. Humans were responsible for the extinction of many species, including the Draco lizard, White rhinoceros, the Buffalo, and the Humpback Whale (the latter would eventually prove to be sentient and would be brought back from extinction by James Kirk). Human industrial activities also resulted in massive air pollution and degredation of Earth's ozone layer. The nuclear wars led to several "nuclear winters", as well as radiation poisoning of both Humans and animals.

Around this same time Humanity was still making efforts to explore space. After advances in sub-light propulsion rendered sleeper ships a thing of the past around 2018, manned and unmanned exploration of space further advanced. Colonel Shaun Geoffrey Christopher led the first successful mission to Saturn. (TOS: "Space Seed", "Tomorrow is Yesterday") In 2032, a successful manned mission to Mars, Ares IV, took place in the midst of world war. Although the command module was lost in a graviton ellipse, this mission was considered by some as a precursor for Humankind's further exploration of space. (VOY: "One Small Step") And in 2037, the Charybdis was launched by the United States in a third attempt to take Humans beyond the Sol system. Unknown at the time, that ship was swept off course by an unknown alien force and finally reached the Theta 116 system. (TNG: "The Royale")

Although the drive might have been more advanced, the Ares IV appears to have been in some ways a more primitive ship than the 1996 DY-100 Khan escaped Earth in. Artificial gravity, at a minimum, seems to have not been included. This could be due to many factors, including economic downturns, the existence of WWIII, and key scientific capabilities being lost or unavailable after the Eugenics Wars.

First Contact

After the last global conflict, Dr. Zefram Cochrane made mankind's first faster-than-light spaceflight in 2063. This resulted in the first formal post-warp contact by an interstellar race: the Vulcans. This affected Humanity in a profound way. (Star Trek: First Contact)

Following first contact, Humanity rebuilt its world from the ashes of the devastating nuclear conflict; most forms of poverty and disease were eradicated from the planet within the next fifty years. However, it was a very difficult fifty years and global recovery was uneven: in the early 2080s some areas of the planet remained in a state of near-anarchy; and from a 24th century perspective Earth was still seen as recovering from World War III well into the early 22nd century; Picard even called the era "chaotic". (Star Trek: First Contact; TNG: "Up The Long Ladder", "Encounter at Farpoint"; ENT: "Broken Bow")

As Earth gradually recovered, Humans ventured out into space using warp capability. Early starships such as the SS Valiant circa 2065 were sent out to explore the universe. (TOS: "Where No Man Has Gone Before") Colonies such as New Berlin were established on the moon by 2067, and the first Human colony on Mars was established in 2103. (ENT: "Terra Nova"; VOY: "The 37's", "Lifesigns")

During the mid- to late-21st century, Humanity fought four wars against the alien race known as the Kzinti. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Sirius and the victory of Earth. Kzinti were forced to do a complete demilitarization of their government, with only a small police force permitted, and to allow complete and unrestricted access to their territory. (TAS: "The Slaver Weapon")

In the early- to mid-22nd century a world government known as United Earth was created. By 2150, Earth's former nations had joined the organization. (TNG: "Attached") 50,000 people lived in space.

In 2151, Humanity's first starship capable of warp 5 was launched: the Enterprise NX-01. It was the first of a line of ships that would, from a design and organizational point of view, evolve into the ships used by Starfleet into the 24th century and beyond.

The Enterprise had a distinguished service career, but is best known for thwarting the Xindi plan to eradicate Humanity. In the 22nd century, the Sphere Builders informed the Xindi that they would be the victims of a genocidal attack from Humans in the 26th century, and should act preemptively to eliminate the threat. This was a fabrication on the part of the Sphere Builders to use the Xindi to their own advantage. (ENT: "Azati Prime") The Xindi Council went along with the advice, tested a prototype superweapon on Earth in 2153 (resulting in the deaths of nearly 7 million humans), and intended to use a more powerful superweapon to destroy the entire planet. (ENT: "The Expanse") This crisis became the most threatening event to Humans as a species since World War III. The Enterprise, under the command of Captain Jonathan Archer, was able to both severely damage the Sphere Builders' technology systems and convince the Xindi that Humans were not their enemy. (ENT: "Zero Hour")

After the Xindi crisis, and following increased tensions with the Romulan Star Empire, several of the affected political powers in the region of space – including Humans – joined together in an alliance known as the Coalition of Planets. The Coalition of Planets was founded in 2155, and was made up of several worlds who later became integral to the formation and early history of the United Federation of Planets, formed in 2161. (ENT: "Demons"; TNG: "The Outcast") Humanity's participation in this Coalition marked the true beginning of its growth into an interstellar species.

In the 2160s the tensions that existed in the 2150s between Earth and the Romulan Star Empire flared up into a full-scale interstellar war. The Earth-Romulan War was a major conflict, with military and political ramifications felt for at least two centuries. Neither side clearly prevailed. Earth and the Star Empire finally ended the violence after the Battle of Cheron and established a neutral zone as a buffer between their two spheres of influence. The neutral zone lasted into at least the 24th century. (TOS: "Balance of Terror"; TNG: "The Defector")

Humanity and the Federation

The Federation, as a body, was not involved in the Earth-Romulan War. (TOS: "Balance of Terror") However, after that war Humanity's history and that of the Federation go hand in hand. The Earth Starfleet grew into the military and exploratory arm of the Federation known as simply "Starfleet" by the 23rd century.

The Federation president's office was in the city of Paris on Earth. (DS9: "Homefront", "Paradise Lost"; Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country) Political crises and conflicts that involved the Federation drew Humanity in, and vice versa. Human involvement in Federation matters in the 23rd century were so extensive that they prompted at least one Klingon to claim in 2293 that the Federation was little more than "a 'homo sapiens' only club." (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country) Some major examples:

The artificial lifeform known as V'Ger threatened to destroy all life on Earth in 2273, but was repelled by Starfleet. (Star Trek: The Motion Picture)

The Whale Probe in 2286 was doing significant damage to Earth and Starfleet facilities; it was eliminated as a threat through the efforts of Humans and a half-Human Vulcan. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home)

Earth was threatened with assimilation into the Borg Collective in late 2366 and late 2373, but each instance Starfleet intervened. (TNG: "The Best of Both Worlds"; Star Trek: First Contact)

In 2375, towards the end of the Dominion War, the Breen Confederacy, which had just joined the Dominion, destroyed much of Starfleet Headquarters' offices in San Francisco. The Federation Starfleet defended the planet. (DS9: "The Changing Face of Evil")

The threat against Earth from a thalaron radiation weapon created by the Reman leader Shinzon aboard his flagship, the Scimitar in 2379 was repulsed by Starfleet. (Star Trek Nemesis)

The Federation maintained patrol over the Romulan Neutral Zone, the result of an Earth-Romulan Star Empire treaty, into the 24th century. (TNG: "The Neutral Zone")

Despite such planetary threats, by the 24th century most Humans considered that they had turned their home planet into a paradise. (DS9: "What You Leave Behind")

In 2381, Earth was attacked again by the Borg. Leveling most of Starfleet Academy and parts of Paris, as well as other areas. This was a large hit to the Federation and Earth.

Pre-warp alien contacts

  • Although official First Contact came with the Vulcans landing on Earth in 2063, (Star Trek: First Contact) several earlier contacts with aliens (non-Humans for purposes of this article) took place under less well-known circumstances. The motivations driving these furtive contacts were sometimes less than clear, even to those they contacted. A few of these of summarized below:
  • Extraterrestrial visitors, known as the "Sky Spirits", visited with and genetically altered a group of people on Earth who would later be known as the indigenous inhabitants of America. This took place about 45,000 years ago. (VOY: "Tattoo")
  • As early as 4000 BC, unknown aliens took Humans to raise on planets at least 1,000 light years from Earth. Their decedents were then used as agents on Earth to promote the alien policy that Humanity should survive its own self-destructive tendencies. Who the aliens were or if those were their true motives are not clear. (TOS: "Assignment: Earth")
  • The being known as Kukulkan visited the Earth and helped advance the Egyptian, Mayan, Aztec, and Chinese civilizations. Kukulkan gave those civilizations new art and agricultural techniques. (TAS: "How Sharper Than a Serpent's Tooth")
  • The ancient Greeks were visited by aliens who, for all intents and purposes, were viewed as gods by the Humans. The aliens enjoyed this treatment for awhile, until their adoration waned and they moved on. These aliens were the basis for classical Greek gods and goddesses (for example, Apollo). (TOS: "Who Mourns for Adonais?")
  • Around 400 BC, a group of refugees from the Sahndara system settled on Earth and learned of the teachings of Plato. Some time afterward, they left Earth and began their own civilization as the Platonians. (TOS: "Plato's Stepchildren")
  • The Q later known as Quinn visited Earth at least three times. In 1666 he assisted Isaac Newton in discovering gravity. In 1864, he saved Colonel Thaddius Riker in the American Civil War. In 1969, he assisted Maury Ginsberg in arriving at the Woodstock concert. (VOY: "Death Wish")
  • In the 18th century, a group of alien anthropologists, called the Preservers, visited Earth and subsequently transplanted a group of American Indians, including people from the Delaware, Navajo, and Mohican tribes, to another planet. This was presumed to have been done to "preserve" their dying culture. Who the aliens were or if those were their true motives are not clear. (TOS: "The Paradise Syndrome")
  • A group of aliens known as the Megan interacted with the population of Salem, Massachusetts. Their involvement eventually led to the Salem witch trials. Their influence may have also led to a number of other influences on Earth mythology and beliefs.
  • The non-corporeal being, Onaya, was present on Earth at least twice: once during the 1st century BC where she stimulated the mind of Catullus; and again circa 1821, where she affected John Keats before departing. (DS9: "The Muse")
  • The El-Aurian known as Guinan visited the Earth during the late 19th century, around 1893. She became well known in San Francisco, however her identity as a non-Human remained unknown. (TNG: "Time's Arrow")
  • Alien abductions of Humans took place in at least the 19th century and 20th century. The former was done by the Skagarans, who took several thousand Humans to work as slaves on a Skagaran colony. The latter was done by the Briori, who took three hundred Humans from Earth to be used them as slaves. In both instances the Humans revolted and overcame or drove away their kidnappers. It is not know if the two cultures are related. (VOY: "The 37's"; ENT: "North Star")
  • In 1957, three Vulcans crash-landed in Carbon Creek on the North American continent. They had to live among the Humans until a rescue ship finally arrived. Before leaving Earth, however, the Vulcan T'Mir traveled to a large city and sold an "invention" to a businessman: Velcro. There is also evidence that one of the Vulcans, Mestral, decided to stay behind on Earth. (ENT: "Carbon Creek")
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